Transport systems in developing countries are technologically different to those form the developed world, however the following are general transport systems that is widely used. - Pollution related disasters However if a more thorough vulnerability assessment is required, the Philippine Citizen's Disaster Response Network (CDRN) also developed a checklist of vulnerability indicators to assess, particularly with regard to food insecurity and malnutrition since disasters affect people's livelihood strategies. These 17 Goals build on the achievements of the Millennium Development Goals, while entailing new areas such as climate change, sustainable consumption, peace economic inequality, innovation and justice, among other priorities. [18-12-20]. This group then explores spatial differences, land use zones by asking, observing, listening and then producing a transect diagram. In this way it empowers the people to be involved in all aspects of the project including planning and implementation of the research as well as the solutions that emerge. Successful analysis and profile will provide you with an understanding of what the communities expectations are with regard to the organisation doing the analysis. ' Now make a tree form: the truck is the problems; the roots are the causes of the problems; the leaves are the effects - Individual interview: to get personal or representative information. i. 2014. - Identify Hazards: by finding records that show causes of incidents and disasters / adverse events and identifying local patterns of loss events - Let people draw a map of their household and resources / capacities on which they depend for survival (material/physical, social/organizational, motivational/attitudinal capacities). Human-made Hazards iii. The content of the assessment can be explained during the disaster risk reduction training in the community but the actual assessment is a separate activity. However public education and awareness campaigns can fail if there is a lack in understanding of the community dynamics because communities function as an entity involving different intricate systems. ' History, reason for formation Therefore capacity building is not only about undertaking specific tasks but the wider impacts of aid interventions must be considered in the process. Rail Accidents: The rail system of a country generally transport people and / or goods. EWS are further often generalized in time span warnings. Civil Aviation Authorities of a country are also enforcing strict rules with regards to use and standards of aircraft in order to reduce aircraft accidents because the general dynamics of this mode of transport cause that there are little to no survivors in the case of an accident. Specify target audience: who will be targeted with intervention. Sustainable development can be described as a balance that is found between economic vitality, ecological integrity and social equity. If the hazard is analysed first, one will find out which communities is affected by the hazard. Some points to keep in mind while doing a hazard assessment is: Some hazards create secondary hazards and Hazard assessment is based on past hazards but don't forget to consider possible disaster threats that is new to the community. Aviation Disasters: are more relevant for developing countries. It is best to apply this activity in an early phase when a community is first engaged during a community risk assessment. [ONLINE] Available at: - That something is working in every community, organization or group i. Participants, as equal partners can investigate the problem and underlying causes or factors involved and take collective action to make long-term solutions. Sustainable livelihoods cover a wide agenda and issues may be uncovered that cannot be addressed for whatever reason and in this may unduly raise expectations. Early Warning Systems Incorrect planting and irrigation methods that are followed may prevent the soil from rehabilitating itself. - Produce a paper copy of the exercise for permanent record. gender, religious believes, cultures) to indicate conflicting resource priorities. - Land uses ' arable land, grazing areas, settlement areas, forest and woodland areas, eroded or degraded areas. What is the purpose of the organisation The reality of budget constraints will impact on risk reduction efforts. What is Sustainable Development?. - Forewarning: The time between warning and impact. With regard to the community, it is important to remember the following: If an individual is aware of and understands the risks, the individual can choose to adapt behaviour in order to avoid or even reduce the risk or to prepare for the hazards. ' Hazard Assessment: the goal is to specify the nature and behaviour of the potential hazards and threats that people in the community might face. - Duration: How long is the impact of the hazard felt? Desertification is the inability of soil to foster or maintain human life. - Fires in Informal Settlements: As the migration of people from rural places continue to the urban regions, urban planners experience problems. ' Decision-making - How are decisions made? M.M. 1.1.2. Select a person to lead the interview Enforcing pollution laws remains a very difficult task even if developing countries have legislation in place. In most cases the assessment matrix is a guideline to identify vulnerabilities through group discussions with community members and a hazard map can be used to visualize the elements at risk and the location of the most vulnerable people. In a workshop based session, the community members can brainstorm lists of the resources and capacities they can think of as individuals or community members. land, environment, health, skills and labour force, infrastructure, food, housing, capital and technologies. Agriculture will be at the heart of the post-Doha negotiations, and sustainable development will be at the heart of the agriculture negotiations. This can be in the form of announcements through radio, hours of continuous rain, behaviour of animals, etc. Quality of life is recognized as being able to live in healthy surroundings, with an adequate standard of living and a way of life that is physically, intellectually and morally satisfying. - Social or Organisational: The way society is organised, internal dynamics and how it manages the family structures, leadership qualities and structures, patterns of decision-making, participation levels, social division and conflicts, community organisations, relationships to government as well as to the government policies and legislation. When making a time line and showing events as they occurred over time to the present, it can be used to identify and analyse trends over time. Vulnerability is a characteristic of people who inhabit a certain natural, social or economic space within which they are classified according to their position of more or of lesser sensitivity towards the risks that they might have to face. 3. Participation of the community also decrease the occurrence of creating dependence rather than developing existing capacities. Underline the nouns in english, but his parents speaks, speak italian. ' - A large writing surface (black / white board) and mark the months of the year on the horizontal axis. This part of the web site attempts to introduce the issue of development and sustainable development. Step 1: Identification of major disaster risk issues as well as hazard and community analysis. Direct Observation: Is systematically observing objects, people, events, relationships, participation and then recording these observations. - Intermediate-term warnings: Can be issued weeks ' a few months in advance. o Resource and Asset mapping: involves making a map showing local resources and capacities as well as gender differences with regard to access to and control over the resources. ' Membership, attendance and regularity of meetings They are: Hazard assessment, Vulnerability assessment and Capacity assessment. Establish the cost of materials and review current programmes to determine the advantages of purchasing material or making your own. - Using a consensus-building, participatory process when making decisions. Secondary data review: This type of data review consist of visiting libraries, government offices, universities or research centres, maps and newspaper extractions. A participatory assessment can consist of three components that can be combined but can also stand on its own as a participatory assessment. At the same time, we have never had better know-how and solutions available to avert the crisis and create opportunities for a better life for people all over the world. Southern Business School. What coping strategies do people have that would enable them to cope with crisis or effects of disaster. Appreciative inquiry: The priority of sustainable development is to find an effective way to eliminate poverty and improving the quality of human life within the carrying capacity of supporting eco systems. Early Warning Systems (EWS) can be seen as effective or accurate information given timely in order to give those at risk of disaster the opportunity to take action to reduce the risk and prepare for effective response or even to avoid the risk altogether. There are many challenges of sustainable development in S.A. and amongst them is: ' Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction Intervention. Obtain audience participation and cooperation: involve the target groups in the implementation. The appreciative enquiry assumes: - Enhance economic vitality E.g. 7. The facilitator can then summarise the clusters of answers to a final list which can then be seen as the group's opinion and decision to the posed question. However capacity building involves more than only transfer of knowledge. Available from: A gender specific calendar would provide insight into gender-roles and divisions of labour. Also consider partnerships with the private sector. Sustainable Development The International Institute for Sustainable Development refers to the 'Brundtland Report' whom define the term sustainable development as development that meets the needs of the present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. In this context, the community behaviours that reduce risk can be seen as the product to be sold to the target market. Ask for concrete information and examples By bypassing the government of that community may be more cost effective and can be justified if that government manipulates the distribution of the aid but can be seen as a form of political interference. Qualitative research produces descriptive data such as peoples own words and generally there is no numbers or measurements are linked to observations. Pay attention to group dynamics The Research Methodology. The goal for a vulnerability assessment is to identify the elements at risk and the reasons why this is so. - History taking can be started with current experiences and then going back in time. - Let the people determine the criteria for the importance of an organisation and to rank them according to these criteria (can be ranked into three or four categories) The community's physical geography: Geographical area; position in terms of other surrounding communities; access to the community; sections such as business / residential (formal and informal) / industrial; infrastructure available in the community; natural habitat including climate, rainfall and temperature Demographics of the particular population: total population; race / culture / nationality; age; gender; language; religion. Mining communities have been proven to be at a higher risk to the dangers of air pollution. To get to the effects of the problems, ask for the consequences of each problem. 3. - Hazard type: Community members can indicate the kinds of hazards that have or could affect their community. The social mapping tool (diagram) can be made by a team working with the community in the following way: Air Pollution: occurs when hazardous material and pollutants are released into the atmosphere. Inventory of material resources: list of all the materials that can be used. i. ' Contribution so far The decision needs to be made which aspect will be considered first, hazard or community. It is wise to present the materials to a sample audience in order to make corrections if needed. Active? - Group interview: get community level information, access to a large body of information, not useful for sensitive issues 5. ' Changes in how the land is used (crops / forest / degradation) Resources brought by external organisations disappear once the project is over. ii. Grouping can be according to gender, age, resource owners, etc. Children enjoy drawing and will spontaneously draw what is important to them. When was it formed? Vulnerability is further described as the characteristics that limit an individual, a household, a community, a city, a country or even an ecosystem's capacity to anticipate, resist, manage or recover from the impact of a threat, whether natural or otherwise. - Continue the focus group discussion on the history of organisations; the activities undertaken in the community; how well they do their function; how good is their coordination; which organisations, groups or individuals are important in a time of disasters. - The past doesn't automatically dictate the future and reality is created in the moment and at any given time there are multiple realities or paths to follow. ' Information of the community such as: name; boundaries and historical back ground. Challenges of Sustainable Development in South Africa In the name of economic development, the price of environmental damage is paid in the form of land degradation, soil erosion, air & water pollution, deforestation, etc. - Poverty - Ask the group to what extent these organisations are linked together. The best time to do this is during the initial phases of engaging with a community, the following guideline can be followed. Ask open ended questions Ensure the map is copied as a permanent record with the names of the main participants who facilitated and managed the process. The most effective ways in changing the unsustainable behavior is raising awareness regarding the importance of sustainable consumption through conducting lectures, research, and development. Once everyone agrees on the list, the group can discuss the following: The Hazard assessment as in the above assessment matrix is: - Visualise the interactions of physical environment and human activities over space and time 1. - Attitudes: What is the view of the community on its ability to adapt to changes? The targets for the Sustainable Development Goal 12 are partially quantifiable. The goal is to choose the most cost-effective of achievable objectives for the intervention programme. - Let them clarify who uses and controls these resources with regard to gender, class, ethnicity, religion or age. - Disasters and Hazards such as fires, flood, drought, erosion, desertification, deforestation, loss of biodiversity. Further participatory research encourage active participation of the people that is researched and whom the project is going to assist. Substances that can contaminate a water source include sewerage, insecticides, cooling and cleaning of heavy machinery. - Persistently increasing poverty ' Major hazards and their effects ' - Let them use arrows to indicate the use of resources to and from households Communities at risk of recurrent disasters are mainly those that is involved but they are not necessarily organised yet. Indicators of standard of living and quality of life in the community: Employment; unemployment; number of children born in a year; number of teenage pregnancies; infant mortality; life expectancy; average monthly income per individual / household; family structure; level of literacy and educational level. It means doing development without damaging or affecting the environment. - People tend to have more confidence to plan for the unknown when they learn or carry forward the best parts of the past. The transect can be photographed for the purpose of record keeping but also to use later and enable others (that might not have walked with) to discuss what was encountered. Heijmans & Victoria suggest the below matrix as a guideline to conduct a hazards assessment through a group discussion with community members and to continue with a discussion on the intensity and extent. Explain to those present what the purpose of the activity is Quantitative data: is when things can be counted or measured and is associated with analytical research. ' Committee functioning Determine the reasons for higher loss rate and provide safety education amongst this group. Participatory research is distinguished by two main characteristics namely, the relationship between the people involved in the research and the fact that research is used as a tool for action and building knowledge. Water pollution occur when other substances are added by people and their activities. Evidently, political and education are both important for sustainable development and awareness of understanding different meaning of sustainability should be conducted from young age. The goal is to identify what kind of organisational support would be needed to build the CBO's management capability in order to address the community's vulnerabilities. Transect walk: is an investigative tool where the research team and about six to ten key community informants walk the predetermined routes across the area under study. 3. - Identify high-risk Victims: are those groups with high death / injury / property loss rates. The transect can be walked with different groups of resource users (e.g. The idea is to find reasons or causes that contributed to the occurrence of a certain experience. - Case studies of hazards / threats in other communities Those impacts can involve cost escalations as soon as international agencies rush into a crisis, this can seriously undermine the capacity of local organisations. 6. This is determined by the willingness / ability of people to act on their own behalf as well as on various social factors. Principals of sustainability To review secondary data it must be collected first and this can be done Don't interfere with the process. tags: economic-development, social-development, social-entrepreneurship, social-problems, sustainability, sustainable-development, sustainable-development-goals 0 likes Like It is important to note that the time in relation to the warning is subjective and can be interpreted different by different parties. The mapping should be done by the community members, use the following steps: Monitor and make continuous refinements to the programme as needed during the implementation step. Primary and secondary data: When the researched gather their own data it is termed 'primary data' and when the researcher use data collected by other researchers it is called 'secondary data'. The facilitator must be familiar in advance with the names or the organisations in the community. - Get insight in the hazards from the past, how they changed in nature, intensity and behaviour All three of these themes are closely connected to IISD’s work on climate, sustainable resource development, and fair economies. However, Bless and Higson-Smith is of the opinion that a type of participatory research called 'action research' is growing in popularity which suggest the complementary relationship between action and research. ENVIRONMENTAL ESSAY Sustainable development – historical roots of the concept JACOBUS A. o Institutional and social network mapping: reveals the formal and informal organisations that influence people's lives and it captures the perceptions of their importance and relationship to one another. 2. Participatory Research. Water Pollution: Fresh and sea water contain a lot of dissolved minerals. All life forms ate reliant on clean fresh water for survival but some sources place an area / community / environment at risk of consuming contaminated water. Communities depend on water sources for survival or employment and therefore water pollution is an important consideration when communities are developed. - Physical Factors: the available productive resources, skills and hazards. ' Major political events 1.1.1. The importance of oceans for sustainable development is widely recognized by the international community and embodied in Chapter 17 of Agenda 21, the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation and various decisions taken by the Commission on Sustainable Development. Determine the message time and place: Consider when the target audience will be most receptive to the message and then schedule the messages for maximum effect. - Race based inequality Since the attacks by terrorist in America in 2001, the safety and security at airports have become a growing concern globally. 2. 1.2. Asset maps highlight key materials and resources that is used by the local people and can include - Long-term warnings: warnings that is issued months ' a year in advance. Determine the message format: match the format to the message, the audience and the available resources. oil spills that affects the environment and human life in general; loss of life and the vessel in an actual accident as well as loss of the vessel; fires aboard ship or in a harbour and poor traffic control in the harbour have been the causes previously of collisions between ships. The objectives must be clear, measurable and attainable. This makes a spatial overview of the area's main features. 2013: 90 - 92. Participatory research cannot be limited to one correct way. ' Systems within the community: political; institutional; economical; environmental; social and developmental Prepare the key issues in advance, for example a checklist of questions Participatory Assessment Methods - Questions should be asked to encourage the map making and answers must be put on the map. This may reveal the conflict or differences within the community. As many as possible community members should be involved in the assessment, in particular those most at risk. IT will put the researcher in the position to do things with the community instead of doing things for the community, thereby empowering the community to take responsibility for their own development. Thus the resilience of a community can be improved by understanding the risks. - Identify high-risk behaviour: To identify high-risk behaviour, one must determine which acts or omissions cause adverse incidents and disasters. - Continue discussion on how the household copes in times of stress. Identify three high-priority safety issues and based on the analysis, choose one to work on. The researcher assigns numbers to the observations and by counting or measuring the objects, the data is produced. Observations can be analysed afterwards. 2013: 93. Decide which kind of map should be drawn and which features must be shown ' physical or geographical features, households with special needs or community resources. Includes the degree of resilience of the livelihood system of a particular group or individual as well as the capacity to resist the impact of the hazard. The fires spread rapidly and lives are often lost along with property. Georgia was one of the first states that supported the adoption of UN Sustainable Development Goals in 2015 and started to implement them into national political agenda. Poison pollution is a large problem in rural Africa because certain poisons from industrial waste pesticides or insecticides remain in the food source (animal body or plant matter) before being eaten in such a way it remains in the food chain. 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